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Databases and GIS Technologies
1. High-altitude mountain systems of Central Asia are distinguished with the most high degree of their spatial inhomogeneity – about the Palaearctica – in many parameters: altitude difference exceeding 7,000 m, different orientation and steepness of slopes, hydrothermal regimes extending from shortage of moisture and excess of heat at the foothills to excess of moisture and shortage of heat at peaks of ridges. The natural inhomogeneities are overlapped with extreme inhomogeneities in degrees and characters of the anthropogeneous loads.
2. Along with the spatial inhomogeneities, it is observed very marked temporal inhomogeneity in the weather-and-climatic conditions.
3. If one takes into account only basic classes of the ecosystems, their seasonal conditions and a character of the anthropogeneous transformation, then it is possible to extract more than 800 classes of the spatial and temporal inhomogeneities (STI). Besides, one can find here comparatively simple (elementary) versions of the STI – by 2 or 3 order of value more than a number of usual inhomogeneities. Significant part of them is often concentrated at some ridge only or its part, whereas sometimes they take place at area up to 1000 square kilometers.
4. Such density of the spatial-and-temporal diversities create a qualitatively new environment that has very different regimes of cyclic oscillations.
5. High degree of the STI creates premises for high concentration of biodiversity in mountains of Central Asia, possessing full the altitude–belt spectrum, which by 2-3 orders of value exceeds the indices of adjoining plains. Biodiversity enhances considerably a value of the STI.
6. The GIS technologies make it possible to take into account majority of interacting parameters that promote overcoming narrowness of traditional approaches, which are inadequate for complex systems. Aggregation of them took place on narrow, sometimes on the arbitrary basis, which did not enable discovering of all real significant interdependences, especially tracing of the nearest and distant consequences of these or those effects.
7. Practically, all decisions on the use of territories, technologies, processes, etc are adopted with no taking into account their effects on the biodiversity. Among reasons, besides the common hierarchical state governing, which does not correspond to idea of biodiversity conservation, one should note the time shortage and practical impossibility to decision-adopting persons (DAP) to assess competently significant volume of information that is easily understood for specialists only.
8. The GIS aggregation makes it possible to select significant portion of information that is applicable for adequate assessment of situation and forecasting.
9. Using the discovered interdependences (recalculation factors, in particular), it is possible to arrange the automatized systems for supporting decisions (ASSD). First check of application of the ASSD for the purpose of DAP was made in the end of 1980s for conditions of the Issyk-Kul basin. Currently, the GIS is developed for the Project targeted at conservation of biodiversity of the Western Tien Shan.
Note. Abstracts are published in author's edition
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