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Human Genome Diversity
Longevity of the humans is a complex problem. One of the main tasks is search for molecular-genetic markers of the predisposition to a longevity or illnesses. Perhaps, the tempos of growing older and illnesses can be determined by individual genotypes, especially in the old age. This information allows us to detect the predisposition to longevity or sickness and to develop special prophylactic measures for patients with unfavourable genetic background to increase the active period of life. The main aim of the work was to study the polymorphism of some genes, which play a significant role in the physiology of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems. Also the association of the polymorphic markers under study with some widespread diseases in the group of long-livers was revealed. The long-livers are from Novosibirsk or its hospices. The long-livers were of Caucasian origin. Those included into this study were older than 90 at the day of blood sampling. The number of patients-long-livers with determined genotypes was 67, among them there were 14 men and 53 women. The patients examined were 90–105 years old. The mean age was 92.9 ± 2.8. The control group was investigated within the framework of the WHO MONICA project (men and women 25–64 years old). The polymorphism of following genes was studied: the angiotensin-converting enzyme gene (ACE), the receptor of macrophage colony stimulation factor gene (RCSF), the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CCR2 genes, the apolipoprotein E gene (Apo E), the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR), the platelet receptor glycoprotein IIb/IIIa gene (GBIIb/IIIa), the dopamine D4 receptor gene, and the dopamine transporter gene (DAT). The data obtained reveal the frequency of genotypes of the ACE gene in the total group of long-livers: 31% (II), 54% (ID) and 15% (DD). The frequency of D allele in men was 29%, and in women 45%. The population frequency of D allele was 52%. The frequency of E4 allele of the ApoE gene in the Novosibirsk population was 12%, and in the group of long-livers the frequency of this allele decreased to 6%. In contrast to this, in the Novosibirsk population the frequency of E2 allele increased from 5% for young people to 9% in long-livers. In according with our data long-livers had an increased frequency of the short (2–3 repeats) alleles, and a decreased frequency of long (5–6 repeats) alleles of the D4 gene, with respect to the population frequency in men under 64. The data obtained reveal an increase of heterozygotes of the CCR2 gene to 36% with respect to 20% in the Novosibirsk population. The allele frequencies of RCSF, MTHFR and CCR5 genes did not differ from those in the Novosibirsk population. The genotype of all the genes under study in the group of long-livers was in the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, with the exception of the GBIIb/IIIa gene (χ2 = 9, p = 0.006). This work has received financial support from the Russian Humanitarian Research Foundation (Grant 01-06-00206a).
Note. Abstracts are published in author's edition
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